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Management of the country’s fishing stocks is seen as a crucial component of the country’s long-term food security

Posted by African Press International on August 31, 2013

TAMPOLOVE,  – Thin government regulation of Madagascar’s fisheries industry has disguised a steady and unsustainable rise in the sector’s production over the past two decades, which threatens both the long-term survival of key marine species and the livelihoods of fishing-dependent coastal communities, according to local conservation groups.

The coastline of the world’s fourth largest island is about 4,800km, providing it with an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of more than 1.2 million square kilometres, but the government has no capacity to patrol, police or monitor its vast maritime asset.

According to a 2011 study led by researchers from Canada’s University of British Columbia, in collaboration with Blue Ventures, a Madagascar-based conservation organization, fish catches in the country were double the official documented tally, with much of it caught by unregulated artisanal fishermen or foreign-registered fishing vessels.

Management of the country’s fishing stocks is seen as a crucial component of the country’s long-term food security, given the high risks associated with relying exclusively on agriculture. Subsistence farming of the staple rice is the predominant practice of Madagascar’s donor-dependent economy, but insecurity, poor infrastructure, and natural disasters such as cyclones and locust infestations are all handicapping agrarian development. More than three-quarters of the country’s population – about 20 million people – live on less than US$1 a day, according to government figures.

Madagascar has the world’s 28th longest coastline, which the government is hugely under-equipped to police. “The country has three monitoring vessels and nine speedboats to protect its waters from illegal fishing boats and monitor domestic fisheries,” said Frederic Le Manach, lead author of the study from the University of British Columbia, in a 2011 report of the Sea Around Us Project.

Overfishing

Foreign fishing fleets from Europe and Asia are placing additional pressure on Madagascar’s fisheries; their annual seafood catch of nearly 80,000 tons – almost the same amount local fishermen catch – exacerbates the impact of overfishing at the local level, according the University of British Colombia’s research.

More than 70,000 Malagasy live along the arid southwest coast, known for some of the largest coral reef systems in the western Indian Ocean. For many, including the Vezo, a group of Malagasy coastal people, fishing is a crucial source of income.

The majority of villagers are “gleaners” foraging at low tide for octopus, primarily, but also for snails and sea cucumbers, from the shallow-lying reefs. Octopus is the most lucrative catch as it is one of the largest export commodities from the southwest, according to Blue Ventures.

Before 2002, only villages in the proximity of the port city Toliara exploited octopus for commercial export. But increasing demand has led to an expansion of the trade along the southwest coast, leading to a decrease in catch.

“Octopus fishing is our way of life. It is a Vezo job. It is like going to school; we have always learnt this and done this. We cannot survive without this work,” said Honorine, a local octopus gleaner and member of the Velondriake Association, a community organization that works to protect the marine environment. The association has a 24 village membership in the Andavadoaka region.

Temporary closures

Blue Ventures, working with community organizations like the Velondriake Association, has tried to stem the decline of octopus by introducing, in 2004, temporary closures of fishing areas.

This strategy gives octopus stocks a chance to recover, and more than 50 communities along 400km of coastline have since adopted the practice, termed “marine protected areas” (MPAs).

Donah Angelo Gilbert, a marine conservationist and aquaculture technician for Blue Ventures, says that the MPAs were initially resisted by villagers.

“They make a living from the sea, so explaining to them that they had to stop fishing in certain areas was tricky. But they had already seen their fish stocks declining and that they needed to protect the sea in order to survive; they realized they had no alternative if they wanted their children to be able to have a future at sea,” Gilbert told IRIN.

Honorine lives in Tampolove, a village of 600 people, with one school and no hospital, where fishing is the lifeblood of the community. She recognizes the impact MPAs have had.

“When we started the reserves, our lives became better. We have experienced an increase in octopus catch and an increase in the individual size of octopus.”

Co-management

The MPA model has kick-started government action; it has “guided national fisheries policy, leading to two new national laws in Madagascar introducing minimum octopus catch sizes and annual closure periods to protect spawning stock,” said Alasdair Harris, the founder of Blue Ventures. The maritime sector remains under-regulated, however.

The temporary closures are not a panacea for Madagascar’s overfishing problem, but with little government legislation on fishing practices to date, co-management – as collaborations among local communities, conservation organizations and governments are known – could offer a path forward.

A recent study of 42 tropical reef systems in five countries found that such arrangements helped both protect fish stocks and meet the needs of local communities.

ct/cc/go/oa/rz/ source http://www.irinnews.org

 

 

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Justine Sija has boosted her business as a fish vendor through access to microcredit

Posted by African Press International on May 19, 2013

Justine Sija has boosted her business as a fish vendor through access to microcredit

TOLIARA,  – Justine Sija, 60, begins her day at 4am, when she buys catch from local fishermen to hawk on the streets of St Augustin Village, in Madagascar’s southern Atsimo-Andrefana Region. The work is hard, but in the last year, access to microcredit has boosted both her business and her hope for the future.

“Before, I used to make 10,000 to 20,000 ariary (US$4.50 to $9) a day. Now, with the credit, I can make double that amount,” she told IRIN. “I can put my four [grand]children in school, buy some livestock and save the rest of the money. Eventually, I plan to sell other goods also, like rice and other local products,” Sija said.

Madagascar’s microfinance sector was established in 1990, but it began to experience rapid growth only in the last 10 years; it was worth about 22.7 billion ariary ($10 million) in 2002, and by 2011, it was valued at about 244.4 billion ariary ($112 million).

Microfinance is seen as a vehicle to help Madagascar attain some of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly the goal on eradicating extreme poverty. The UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) says about 85 percent of the population lives on less than $1.25 a day.

The poor often lack access to formal banking and credit services; according to some estimates, only 2 percent of low-income households have access to credit. Instead, they rely on informal money lenders, who charge annual interest rates for unsecured loans of between 120 to 400 percent – compared with microfinance institutions’ (MFI) average rate of 36 percent for the same period, or between 2 and 4 percent a month. (The country’s annual inflation rate was pegged at 5.4 percent in March 2013.)

Madagascar’s microfinance sector has about 31 players, which include state, foreign investor and donor-supported initiatives, operating under a legal framework and regulated by Madagascar’s Central Bank.

Since 2011, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and UNCDF have jointly managed the $350,000 Support Programme for Inclusive Finance for Madagascar (PAFIM), which operates through three MFIs and charges a zero interest rate on loans.

“Through this mechanism we have good hope that the cycle of poverty caused by poor farmers’ debts will be broken,” Fatma Samoura, UNDP’s country representative, told IRIN.

Education needed

“People in Madagascar need to work together and the poor here need a direct approach to development. The products are there, but people also need the right education to be able to access them,” said Harinavalona Rajaonah, who works at Ombona Tahiry Ifampisamborana Vola (OTIV), one of the UNDP-partnered microfinance organizations.

“We have tried to put a culture of credit access into place here. The hardest part is to change the mentality of the people,” Jean Olivier Razafimanantsoa, regional director of the Central Bank-registered credit cooperative Caisses d’Epargne et de Crédit Agricole Mutuelles (CECAM), told IRIN.

“We work together with other organizations in the city, as some people are a member [of other MFIs] everywhere, and so they take out too many loans. Also, the farmers tend to overestimate how much they need. They want us to finance their rice crop, which is worth 700,000 ariary ($321), but they’ll come and ask for two million ($917). When you ask them how they got to this amount, they don’t know,” he said.

All microloan borrowers receive business advice, but with technical assistance and funding from UNDP, microfinance players have also established microcredit education programmes aimed at vulnerable groups.

One such programme, run by CECAM, mainly targets poor female street vendors. Razafimanantsoa says the programme has 1,303 clients, including Sija and other women from St Augustin Village. The women must save between 200 and 400 ariary ($0.09 to $0.18) a week, as part of the initial loan agreement.

They are then enrolled in lending system that goes through nine cycles, the first entitling the recipient to an 80,000 ariary ($36) loan. Each time the clients repay a loan, they are eligible for another, with progressively higher loan ceilings up to 300,000 ariary ($137). Repayment schedules range from a few months to a year. The programme also offers education on basic money management, family planning and health issues.

After completing all the cycles, the women become eligible for CECAM’s normal commercial microcredit system.

“Right now, our goal is for these women to eat three times a day and feed their children, but eventually, they should be able to build up a guarantee to get a commercial business going and enter into the regular CECAM system,” Razafimanantsoa said.

Cyclone

The weekly obligatory savings plan acts as a buffer against hard times, which is especially important in this cyclone-prone country.

After Cyclone Haruna struck Madagascar in February, many of CECAM’s clients in Toliara, the regional capital of Atsimo-Andrefana Region, were left penniless.

“The first weeks, we didn’t give out any more loans, as we were afraid people would just use the money to eat. We are now helping some of the women who have lost their homes to reschedule their loans,” Razafimanantsoa said.

“After I got the microcredit, I went from selling 100 eggs a day to selling up to 300. I could send my children to a private school”

Prisca, 33, who did not provide her family name, from Belem, a district of Toliara, had entered her second credit cycle, and was using the capital to buy eggs from producers to sell at the market. “After I got the microcredit, I went from selling 100 eggs a day to selling up to 300. I could send the children to a private school and was able to buy some chickens,” she told IRIN.

But she was left homeless in the wake of the cyclone, and now lives in a displacement camp, sharing a tent with 10 others. “We left with only the clothes on our back. The first week we stayed in a school. Then the BNGRC [National Disaster Risk Reduction Office] came to give us these tents,” she said.

Prisca owes a 44,000 ariary ($20) debt to CECAM, and in the interim has enrolled in a cash-for-work project. “We’re working to rehabilitate the roads, earning 24,000 ariary ($11) a week. I want to pay the CECAM [debt] first, as that will enable me to take out a new loan. Then, I can earn money again and rebuild the house little by little. This credit is what takes care of our daily needs,” she said.

In the wake of the disaster, Sija, the fishmonger, was grateful for the loan’s savings requirement. “We pay back our loans from our savings,” she said. “After the cyclone in February, we had some problems paying, as there were no more goods to sell, so it was good I had saved up some money.”

Growing businesses

The programmes are working.

Hanisoa Ravalison, 43, operates a small roadside restaurant selling sausages and simple meals in the village of Ambanitsena, about 26km east of Antananarivo, the capital. Following a visit by an OTIV agent, who recruits prospective clients, Ravalison decided to expand her business.

“At first, I borrowed money to renovate and enlarge the snack bar and to buy a fridge,” she told IRIN. “Now, I use money to buy more goods, so I can make more profit.”

Ravalison is in the tenth borrowing cycle of OTIV’s 12 cycles – which have an initial loan of 60,000 ariary ($27.50) and reach a loan ceiling of 440,000 ariary ($201).

“Before I received training, I just used the money I made to buy whatever was needed. Now, I separate personal expenses and money for the business. I also know the difference between sales and profits and know that I need to use part of the profits to make the company run.”

On a good day, her restaurant takes in 85,000 ariary ($39). “During holidays and festivals, we sell as many as 100kg of sausages,” she said.

Her husband has set up a second restaurant, and two of their five children work in the family businesses. Ravalison said her next business plan was to open a wholesale food business.

Liva Harininana Ramanatenasoa began a small business selling charcoal in Ambanitsena. “One day, an agent from OTIV came along and explained that, with microcredit, I could do better,” she told IRIN.

With the first loan, Ramanatenasoa bought more charcoal. “Without credit, I would be able to buy 10 bags maximum, but with credit, I could afford as many as 22, so I made a lot more profit,” she said.

Two years after first enrolling in the microcredit scheme, Ramanatenasoa used the profits from her charcoal business to buy the rights to a stone quarry for 200,000 ariary ($90). She now employs a staff of 14. Profits from the business have enabled her to build a house and put her children in school.

“If it wasn’t for the credit, I would have still been selling coal,” she said.

ar/go/rz source http://www.irinnews.org

 

 

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Food insecurity opens door to TB

Posted by African Press International on May 2, 2013

Waning donor support for food assistance is seeing increasing food insecurity. Malnutrition and the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) are directly linked

TOLIARA,  – Health experts fear the interruption of food assistance in Madagascar is increasing incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Toliara, the capital city of Madagascar’s southern Atsimo-Andrefana region.

Malnutrition and TB are intimately linked: Malnutrition weakens the immune system, increasing susceptibility to the disease, while TB reduces appetite, worsens the absorption of micronutrients and alters patients’ metabolism.

Donors suspended all but emergency assistance to Madagascar in 2009, after President Marc Ravalomanana was deposed in a coup d’etat. The paucity of donor funding has seen food assistance dwindle “to a very serious level”, said Xavier Poncin, head of the TB programme at the UN World Food Programme (WFP) in Madagascar.

The impact of Cyclone Haruna, which struck the country in February, has compounded the problem. Since the cyclone, the donors’ food supply chain has been intermittent, Poncin told IRIN.

TB cases are already appearing to increase. Voangy Rasoarinindrime, head of the TB treatment centre in Toliara, told IRIN that in the first three months of 2012, 56 new cases were registered for treatment, compared to 68 cases for the same period this year.

“Many people can come into contact with TB, but [do] not become sick if they are healthy enough to fight off the illness. But now that food is scarce after the cyclone, many people have low immunity and so the illness takes root,” she said.

Less food aid, less treatment

Madagascar’s National Programme Control of TB (PNLT) said 2012 saw 26,182 confirmed cases of TB, although the total number of infections is thought to be about 50,000.

About five percent of cases are fatal. Nine percent of those treated for TB do not complete the six-month treatment regime, risking the onset of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). WFP estimates that about 0.49 percent of all TB cases in Madagascar are MDR-TB.

Food supply at the TB treatment centre in Toliara was depleted in February, in the aftermath of Cyclone Haruna, said Rasoarinindrime. “People are unable to work during treatment, and they still need to feed themselves. We have some patients who left. They said since there was no more food aid here, they would have to go back to work to feed their families,” she said.

“I’m afraid fewer people will actually be completely cured and that this will cause an augmentation in the amount of cases”

Food aid “also encouraged people to come here and receive treatment in the first place. Now they are very upset that there is no more food. Some still come from the remote regions with their baskets ready to receive their rations,” Rasoarinindrime continued. “I’m afraid fewer people will actually be completely cured and that this will cause an augmentation in the amount of cases.”

Some of Madagascar’s TB patients receive food aid from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Others receive food from WFP’s Food by Prescription (FBP) programme, which targets 23,000 beneficiaries – both TB patients and their families – during the six months of treatment. But the FBP programme has been temporally suspended in 22 of 51 health facilities due to WFP Madagascar’s funding shortage.

“If the lack of funding persists, the situation might even worsen as food availability in the pipeline allows for programming in the few remaining partner health centre until September 2013,” said WFP’s Poncin.

Senaz Ratsimbazafy, a 26-year-old waitress in Toliara told IRIN she began feeling sick in November 2012. “I couldn’t breathe and I coughed all the time,” she recalls.

After she was diagnosed with TB, she left her job and was put on the six-month course of antibiotics. In the first months of treatment, she received food assistance for her and her 80-year-old grandmother. “Now, my father’s family have to help us, as there is no more food aid, and I can’t go back to work for another two months,” she said.

Waiting for improvement

According to a 28 March 2013 country briefing by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS), Cyclone Haruna affected about 42,000 households. Meanwhile, a locust infestation is thought to have affected half the country, and rains have been erratic. “An estimated 13 million persons [of the country’s 20 million people] are potentially at risk” from food insecurity in 2013-14, the briefing said.

“Despite an increasing number of people living below the poverty line, most international donors are still limiting their support due to the political situation”

“Despite an increasing number of people living below the poverty line, most international donors are still limiting their support due to the political situation. And this has direct consequences on WFP programmes,” Poncin said.

More than three-quarters of the population now live on less than US$1 a day, according to government figures – up from 68 percent before the political crisis. Elections are scheduled for July; if they are judged “free and fair”, more donor support could be unlocked.

There are other barriers to TB treatment, as well. Eighty percent of the population is rural, and 65 percent live 10km or more from a health centre.

“We had a woman here recently who refused treatment completely,” Rasoarinindrime said. “She lived in a remote region and insisted she had to go back and take care of her family. I told her, ‘You will die and you will contaminate your family.’ Moreover, it might create and contribute [to] spreading multidrug-resistant TB, which is much more difficult to treat – but she left anyway.”

Laundry worker Celerine Ravaonirina, 46, lives 14km from the clinic where she is receiving treatment for TB. Because she has to care for her four children, she travels to the clinic and back each day. “In the beginning, we paid for a pousse-pousse [rickshaw], but now I’m able to walk,” she said. “However, I’m still not able to work.”

ar/go/rz source http://www.irinnews.org

 

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Nutrition and food security can be improved

Posted by African Press International on April 20, 2013

Photo: FAO
Needed: Improved access to wild foods such as insects

NAIROBI,  – Malnutrition could be greatly reduced and food security improved by ensuring improved access to nutrient-rich forest-derived foods like berries, bushmeat, roots, insects and nuts for the world’s poorest populations, experts say.

“I believe forest foods are particularly important for reducing malnutrition when it comes to micronutrients such as vitamin A and iron,” Bronwen Powell, a nutritionist and researcher at the Centre for International Research on Forests (CIFOR), told IRIN.

Making these foods accessible would mean bringing them to markets to benefit the urban poor, many of whom find imported fruits and processed foods unaffordable, and giving people legal access to forests to obtain bio-resources like game meat and honey in areas where it is illegal to do so.

Nutrient potential

Experts told IRIN that while forest foods are underused, they could prove more affordable and more acceptable than other food options.

“With food becoming scarcer, there are calls for communities to look for alternative food sources and foods – some of which might not be readily acceptable to them – but wild foods and fruits have been a delicacy for generations and would be readily acceptable to many people,” said Enoch Mwani, an agricultural economist at the University of Nairobi.

In its 2011 Forests for Improved Food Security and Nutrition report, the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) noted that households living on the margins of poverty could, during the “lean season” or in times of famine or food shortage, rely on forests to provide “an important safety net.”

Others, like Monica Ayieko, a family and consumer economist and an edible insect researcher at Maseno University, say more efforts are needed to change people’s perceptions about wild foods.

“The Westernization of diets has made people associate wild foods like edible insects – a vital source of amino acids and minerals – with poverty. It is a pity because so many children die as a result of nutrient deficiency, yet these are abundant in wild foods,” Ayieko noted.

“The Westernization of diets has made people associate wild foods like edible insects – a vital source of amino acids and minerals – with poverty. It is a pity because so many children die as a result of nutrient deficiency, yet these are abundant in wild foods.”

Studies have recently suggested that insects are a better source of protein as they produce less greenhouse gases than cattle and pigs.

“We must broaden the use of wild foods like wild insects, like crickets, in poor people’s diets, and the good news is FAO has begun to take [the] lead on this,” she added.

Globally, an estimated 1.6 billion people rely on forests for their livelihoods, according to FAO.

Some 870 million people globally are food insecure, while a further 2 billion suffer from nutrient deficiencies.

In Tanzania, a 2011 study of 270 children and their mothers, conducted by CIFOR, revealed that children who consumed wild fruits from forests were more likely to have more diverse and nutritious diets.

The wild foods contributed over 30 percent of the vitamin A and almost 20 percent of the iron that the children consumed each day, even though the foods accounted for just two percent of their diets.

Another study in Madagascar revealed that 30 percent more children would suffer from anemia if they had no access to bushmeat. And studies in the Congo Basin show that bushmeat accounts for 80 percent of the proteins and fats consumed by the local communities.

Strategies needed

According to FAO , the critical role forests could play in improving food security and nutrition is usually “poorly reflected in national development and food security strategies. Coupled with poor coordination between sectors, the net result is that forests are mostly left out of policy decisions related to food security and nutrition.”

CIFOR’s Powell noted that “forest foods haven’t received much attention” in part due to the current method of “measuring food security in terms of energy [or calories] and not in terms of micronutrients, which has meant that foods that aren’t a good source of calories [but have plenty of micronutrients] have been overlooked.”

A lack of national policies to guide the use of wild foods, lack of knowledge about the benefits of such foods, and deforestation and land use changes continue to hamper access to these resources.

Bushmeat consumption is also dogged by concerns over conservation and possible health issues, which could result in calls for stronger policies to regulate their use.

Increased investment in forest development by governments and organizations, increased local control over forest management and use, pro-poor forestry measures, and the integration of forests into national food security strategies are some of the ways to boost access to forest-derived foods.

ko/rz source http://www.irinnews.org

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