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Posts Tagged ‘Drinking water’

Arsenic creep: Arsenic-free public tap in Nepal, but for how long?

Posted by African Press International on September 14, 2013

Arsenic-free public tap in Nepal, but for how long?

HANOI, – Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia may be at risk of arsenic poisoning as massive pumping of groundwater pushes tainted water closer to uncontaminated aquifers, scientists warned in a new study published in the journal Nature.

The study, published by experts from Switzerland, the US and Vietnam, examined changing groundwater flow over one decade in Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi.

Hanoi is expanding rapidly, as is water demand. Pumping for municipal water supplies doubled between 2000 and 2010, to around 240 million gallons daily. In the city, water is filtered and treated, but in areas just a few kilometres outside, near the Red River, many households use private untreated wells.

In the past, higher water levels in the aquifer (underground layer of water-bearing rock, sand or silt) meant water from these wells was generally safe. But as more groundwater has been pumped, water from arsenic-rich sediments is increasingly intruding into the previously uncontaminated aquifer.

Arsenic, one of the most common inorganic contaminants found in drinking water worldwide, can be highly toxic to humans. Even in low concentrationsarsenic can damage health if ingested over long periods. It is associated with cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder and kidneys.

At some sites in Vietnam investigated for the study, arsenic concentrations were up to 50 times higher than the internationally recommended limit of 10 micrograms of arsenic per litre.

The study focused on a village on the outskirts of Hanoi, Van Phuc, where residents have private wells. Although the sample was small, it is believed similar processes may be underway elsewhere in large Asian cities that are pumping more groundwater, said co-author Michael Berg, a geochemist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.

“The processes in nature should be the same anywhere,” he told IRIN, adding that changes in water quality were easier to study in this village because groundwater flow was in one direction – to Hanoi.

“We know exactly where the groundwater is flowing to and we precisely identified where this contaminated water is now intruding into previously safe water,” he explained.

Arsenic creep

Over the last four to six decades, water from the contaminated aquifer has migrated more than 2km toward the city centre, according to the study. However, substantial arsenic contamination moved at a slower pace, only about 120m.

“In some ways it’s not a hugely alarming picture. The water is moving but the arsenic isn’t moving nearly as fast as the water,” said co-author Benjamin Bostick, from Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

This could buy time, perhaps decades, for water managers to try and solve the problem, lead author, Alexander Van Geen, a geochemist at the same observatory, told IRIN from New York.

“But I think there are enough people in trouble now, and this needs to be addressed. We can’t sit back and wait for things to happen. There’s action needed now,” he said.


To tackle contamination, authorities in Van Phuc set up a water cooperative and built a water-treatment facility next to the local health station that serves around 1,000 households.

Berg said this is a good long-term solution and called for local governments to centralize drinking water systems with large treatment facilities capable of serving up to 10,000 people. Residents on Hanoi’s outskirts currently rely on private wells drilled into a patchwork of clean or polluted sands with no central filtering system.

“The challenge there is setting up a distribution network. You have to pipe this water, and the piping is difficult. It’s costly, of course,” said Berg.

Setting up a piped water system is even more difficult in a country likeBangladesh, where there is generally a low level of formal education and weak governance in villages, Van Geen added.

In Bangladesh, the acceptable level of arsenic in drinking water has been set by the national government at five times higher than the international limit. Of the estimated 8.6 million tube wells nationwide, some 4.7 million have been tested, according to UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF); of these 1.4 million were contaminated.

UNICEF estimates some 20 million people in Bangladesh are drinking water from wells with higher-than-government approved levels of arsenic.

The first step across the region should be to test every well, Van Geen said. “This is not happening enough anywhere in South and Southeast Asia, and we’re trying to come up with a semi-commercial approach to the problem.”

Van Geen and researchers in India recently tested the willingness of rural households in the Indian state of Bihar to pay for arsenic testing. Of some 1,800 households offered a test, almost 1,200 agreed to pay a fee to test their tube wells. The researchers found that two out of three households were willing to pay the 20 rupees (US$0.31) necessary to cover the tester’s time and travel, but not the total actual cost of testing (up to $2.37), a gap that would need to be subsidized in a testing campaign.

These and other solutions should be explored now, said Van Geen.

“What we did in Vietnam was important to make people understand that if you have a safe well, it’s not going to become unsafe overnight, so the 10-year policy [timeframe of study] should be for countries to take advantage of that rather than throwing their hands in the air saying ‘I don’t see a solution to that’ or coming up with solutions that are not practical.”

mb/pt/rz  source


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Sweden: Improving water and sanitation

Posted by African Press International on September 9, 2013

STOCKHOLM,  – A leading water think tank today issued a call for a post-2015 development target on water aimed at making better use of scarce water supplies, realising the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, and increasing resilience to droughts and floods by 2030. 

The appeal, from the Stockholm International Water Institute, came after a week of discussions and consultations with aid agencies, development organizations and water experts on how to build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set a 2015 target to improve access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

“The MDGs have provided an incredible focus for the international development agenda and served as a rallying cry at a time when support for international goals was waning,” said Michel Jarraud, chair of UN-Water. “Water-related challenges hit the poor the hardest – this is where we should focus our efforts. We now need to build on what we already have and how to make the next goals even better.”

This issue was one of the key topics of debate World Water Week, an event that winds up today, in Stockholm. The next 12 months are seen as essential to securing a target for water and sanitation that will help guide relief and development efforts for the next 15 years.

Yet despite positive indications from the High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, a dedicated water/sanitation target is not guaranteed; water experts fear years of difficulty if the process is botched, and there were signs at last year’s Rio+20 summit that world leaders may be lacking enthusiasm for new water pledges.

“Not having a water goal will only complicate our job of keeping water very high on the public agenda,” said Bart Devos from the World Youth Parliament for Water (WYPW).

Mixed MDG outcomes

Since the MDG target baseline year, 1990, at least two billion people have gained access to a source of improved drinking water. But nearly 800 million are still left out; of them, 40 percent live in sub-Saharan Africa.

“Not having a water goal will only complicate our job of keeping water very high on the public agenda”

“It [the MDG water target] was useful because it made governments think about what they were doing and how well they were doing. But it also went through a couple of hiccups, which were quite educative,” Mike Muller, from the University of Witwatersrand’s School of Public and Development Management, told IRIN.

“When ministers thought that all they had to do was to put pipes in the ground and taps on the end of them, they focused on infrastructure provision, and they were able to say ‘We’ve provided infrastructure for millions of people’. There was just one problem in many cases – the infrastructure didn’t work.”

Indicators were later tweaked to try to make sure only water services that worked were counted.

The global water target was achieved five years early, in 2010, but sanitation has remained a tougher objective; 2.5 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation facilities. Diarrhoea is the second biggest cause of death in many developing countries, and 1.1 billion people are defecating in the open.

The challenge of sanitation is likely to increase as urban populations rise; the World Bank estimates 70 percent of China’s population will be in towns and cities by 2030.

The MDG water and sanitation target helped stimulate action by countries, donors and agencies; it was aspirational and could be measured and communicated.

What they were less strong on was tackling inequality, which campaigners hope will be more strongly emphasized in the post-2015 targets, dubbed the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

But that may be a harder challenge, particularly with universal water and sanitation targets that mask regional variations. But Amanda Marlin from the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) says they should not just aim for easy targets.

“The MDGs have helped us, but we want to do better post-2015. We don’t want to just go for the low-hanging fruit, just trying to bring down numbers, and that the hardest to reach are left out again and again.”

What to aim for

Unlike the development of the MDG targets, devising the SDGs has involved a wide-ranging and sometimes bewildering consultation process, which has left room for lobbying and comments from all parts of the sector.

Though all see water and sanitation as basic issues, there are a variety of views about the best strategy to embrace.

Many, including those behind today’s Stockholm Statement, argue for a standalone or dedicated goal aiming at a variety of targets. Popular suggestions include a target to end open defecation and a target for universal access to water and sanitation.

Millennium Development Goals
Target 7a: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
Target 7c: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

And there is a desire to move beyond quantity to look at quality – how safe is the water, is it free from pollution, and do the toilets that were built still function? Should there be a target for installed water and sanitation facilities in schools and health centres? Should there be an equality element?

“We need convincing targets, and we need [to see] that they are based on measurable indicators. We are not there yet. A lot of people are proposing too many targets, far too many,” said Gérard Payen, from the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB).

Other suggestions include aiming for fresh water withdrawals to match what is sustainable to supply, and some sort of goals on handwashing and menstrual hygiene.

For each target, there needs to be a way to work out whether the objective was reached, a condition that makes some targets less workable. Measuring the wrong proxy indicator could lead to unintended or even negative results.

“These indicators and goals can really be useful, and can make people concentrate on what they’re trying to achieve. But also we should learn that we have to shape them very carefully or else you might have perverse incentives and people start doing the wrong things,” said Muller.

If the water community does not go into discussions early next year with one voice, Muller worries, they may end up with a result that satisfies no one.

“It’d be much better if we went in with a really well-constructed set of goals. Otherwise, what happens – and that’s what happened with the MDGs – is you go with a huge shopping list, it doesn’t make sense, they all agree that there’s got to be a goal, and somebody kind of cooks it up late at night, and it’s a bad compromise,” said Muller.

Go it alone?

One difficulty the sector faces is that water is clearly related to several other humanitarian and developmental sectors like health and education – linkages that were never captured in the original MDGs.

Some, like Muller, argue that it may be a good idea to put water and sanitation targets in other areas like health, in order to spread obligations and resources.

“We have to be aware that we can’t achieve everything on our own,” said Nina Odenwaelder, from the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ). “We need to have shared responsibilities; inter-linkages need to be more fully discussed.”

But many fear abandoning a standalone goal would split the sector: “If you spread water goals among other goals, it will only foster giant competition for water resources between those sectors,” said Devos.

For more on these issues, listen to a special IRIN podcast recorded at World Water Week with guests Joakim Harlin (UNDP) and Torgny Holmgren (Stockholm International Water Institute)

Regardless, cross-sector partnerships will be a crucial part of improving access to basic water services, experts say.

There is also a strong push to look into waste water management and water resource management, which were not really addressed in the MDG water target. These are “not unfinished business, but business we haven’t yet attended to properly,” said Joakim Harlin, a senior water resources adviser with the UN Development Programme. An estimated 80 percent of waste water is discharged into open water, he says.

But putting waste water into the SDG water targets does not sit comfortably with everyone. Some say the natural environment can often cope with a certain amount of waste water, that waste water infrastructure tends to just benefit elites, and that the big water businesses could be behind the push for a target.

Others worry that it could simply be unhelpful to divide the sector into separate WASH, resource management and waste targets.

“If you now start separating water quality from water quantity, you disintegrate the integration that people have been working at for the past 40 years, so I think it’s a really short-sighted approach,” said Muller.

Data and responsibility

Data is a vital component of any target-based system; measurable goals bring accountability and attract funding.

But there remains a good degree of uncertainty about how much water there is and who is using it. Remote sensing data from satellites can provide some information, but its applicability is limited.

Targets need to reflect things that even developing countries might have or could have capacity to measure, including monitoring over time.

“I’m very sceptical about statistics, even though I believe strongly in knowing what we’re doing,” said Franz Marré, from Germany’s Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).

Some water experts even suggest making a target out of collecting water data.

And even basic definitions await clarification – for instance, is a borehole counted as a safe water point?

“The targets must be appropriate for action. They must give a clear message on what must be done and be clear about ownership. They also need to be attainable, and we need to know if we are on track or off track,” said Odenwaelder.

The question of who will be responsible for achieving the target and paying for it is the final challenge.

“Who is doing the monitoring? Who is paying for it? Where is the home? Who is doing all that work?” said Uschi Eid from the UNSGAB.

“I fear that if water is everybody’s business, then water is nobody’s business.”

jj/rz  source


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Have you had your soap and clean water today? .- Study links hygiene and height

Posted by African Press International on August 5, 2013

Have you had your soap and clean water today?

BANGKOK, – Soap and clean water for effective handwashing can help boost a young child’s growth, according to the firstlarge-scale scientific review to link hygiene to height – one measure of child nutrition.

While medical studies have amply proven how improved hygiene can reduce outbreaks of diarrhoea – a leading killer among children under the age of five – they have not systematically measured the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on a child’s height.

The latest study showed a “small but improved” average growth of half a centimetre among children who received clean water and soap for handwashing as opposed to those who did not. Researchers found clean water and soap reduced stunting by up to 15 percent.

There is growing scientific evidence that repeated bouts of diarrhoea reduce a gut’s ability to absorb life-enhancing nutrients that allow children to develop mentally and physically.

WASH [water, sanitation and hygiene] squarely fits under the heading of an underlying cause of malnutrition,” one of the study’s lead authors, Alan Dangour, a public health nutritionist from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, told IRIN.

Researchers identified 14 studies conducted in low and middle-income countries that provided data on the impact of WASH programming on the physical growth of nearly 9,500 children. Included were five studies with control groups of children who did not receive clean water and soap, but who were similar in most other ways to the ones who did.

“This is a scientifically robust study design that largely removes the problems faced by observational studies,” added Dangour.

Chronic malnutrition, as evidenced by stunting (when a child is too short for his or her age group), is a leading cause of preventable mental disability and contributor to three million deaths annually of children who have yet to reach age five (45 percent of all deaths in that age group).

“Until now, we have not had a demonstration of the direct nutrition impact of WASH interventions on nutrition,” said Francesco Branca, the director of nutrition for health and development at the World Health Organization, who was not involved in the study. “This review shows that a multi-pronged approach [to solving undernutrition] is the way to go.”

Researchers noted available studies on which they base their most recent findings were short-term (with none lasting more than one year), and some had data shortcomings.

While Dangour admitted that “we need much more robust evidence to definitely state that WASH is a `cure for stunting’,” the findings are, nevertheless, important, he concluded.

pt/cb source


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