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Archive for March 22nd, 2013

The famous Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe has died

Posted by African Press International on March 22, 2013

Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe, the author of “Things Fall Apart” the man called the father of modern African literature, dies aged 82.

According to his publisher Penguin in London represented by spokeswoman Mari Yamazaki, quoted by AFP says: “I’m afraid it has been sadly confirmed now,”  Penguin in London.

It has been reported that he died in a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, USA




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Drive for quality in global education

Posted by African Press International on March 22, 2013

 DAKAR,  – Education experts gathered in the Senegalese capital Dakar this week to discuss what priorities should look like once the Millennium Development Goals (M DGs) expire in 2015. The conclusion: more focus on quality and how to measure it; on equity and access for hard-to-reach children; and on what should happen during the first three years of secondary school.

“We need a goal that encompasses our broad aim of quality education, equitably delivered, for all children,” said Caroline Pearce, head of policy at the Global Campaign for Education (GCE).

The meeting was one of 11 global consultations on the post-2015 development agenda.

Millennium Development Goal 2 – to achieve universal primary education – succeeded in pushing up enrolment rates: in 2010 some 90 percent of children were enrolled in primary school, up from 82 percent in 1999, according to the UN.

But the goal was narrow and even more narrowly interpreted: it focused only on access to primary education, and implementers tended to judge success by enrolment rates rather than completion rates.

And the quality in many cases, was very poor. Some 250 million of the 650 million children completing primary school lacked basic numeracy and literacy skills, according to the 2012 Education for All Global Monitoring Report, (GMR), while half of all teachers in Africa have little or no training, according to UNESCO.

Too many untrained teachers

In Niger there are just 1,059 trained teachers at lower secondary level for 1.4 million children. “It’s shocking. Would you send your child to a school with no trained teachers? The lack of a sense of urgency around this is shocking,” said Pearce.

The focus will now shift to look at quality and learning outcomes – this is very welcome, said Susan Nicolai, research manager at the Overseas Development Institute, who has worked for over a decade in emergency and development education.

A task force on learning metrics, set up by the Brookings Institution, is addressing what kind of basic learning competencies should be measured. National assessment tests are likely to feature.

“We don’t want a narrow understanding of quality,” warned Pearce.

“Quality needs to go beyond literacy and numeracy to focus on broader issues like a safe learning environment, creative thinking… This may be a stretch for some countries, but we want them to be stretched.”

Education experts also stressed the need to extend basic education beyond primary to include at least three years of secondary school. Discussions are still under way as to whether basic education coverage should start at four to include one year of early childhood education.

A couple of governments have tried to extend universal education to the first three years of secondary – notably the Kenyan government, which pushed up enrolment rates by extending free primary schooling to include early secondary schooling in 2008. “The aim is to create that expectation on a global level,” said Nicolai.

Equity and access

Equity and access are likely to feature much more centrally. “The progress [in education attendance] has happened mainly among groups that are easiest to reach,” said Nicolai. “The most marginalized still struggle with access – whether that is girls, rural populations, children with disabilities, those living in conflict or disaster-affected situations, and a whole range of other groups.”

One third of children out of school are estimated to have a disability, while the poorest quintile is four times less likely to attend school than the richest quintile, according to a 2012 GMR policy paper.

But improving access is not just about reaching out to marginalized groups or setting up more schools in rural areas – it involves creating an environment where these children want to attend school. Research in South America and South Asia by GCE in 2012 showed girls’ experience of school was much more negative than boys’ and that most did not feel they were learning in a safe environment.

UN agencies UNICEF and UNESCO, which led the consultation process, will outline the outcomes to be presented at a High Level Panel on the post-2015 development agenda in Bali, Indonesia next week. The goals will then be refined over the next couple of months.

The shift in focus to new goals and themes does not mean the current focus on universal access to primary education will drop off, stressed consultation attendees. “There is still a sense of unfinished business, and this will not be forgotten,” said Nicolai.

Call for more government spending

But expanding the scope post-2015 will cost more. The share of government spending on education in developing countries has increased from 2.9 percent to 3.8 percent of GDP in low-income countries since 1999, according to UNESCO. GCE calls for this to reach 20 percent.

Following the introduction of the MDGs, official overseas development aid (ODA) to education increased dramatically, but the share of overall aid targeted to education has stagnated at 10 to 12 percent of the total, while the share of health has more than doubled, according to research by the Overseas Development Institute.

According to GCE estimates, donors in the Development Assistance Committee (an OECD forum) channelled less than 3 percent of their aid to basic education between 2005 and 2009 once tied aid and other factors were excluded. GCE calls for 10 percent of ODA to target basic education.

“This is not that extreme. Almost all groups consulted in the UN 2015 global survey, prioritized education. And education has a huge impact on all other areas – youth employment, climate change, HIV. It is key to building stable democratic societies, and yet it is still wildly underemphasized in donor priorities,” said Pearce.


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Resettlement conflicts in Mozambique

Posted by African Press International on March 22, 2013

TETE,  – The coal boom in Mozambique’s northwestern Tete Province is pitting disgruntled locals against international mining conglomerates as commun ities living in the new mining areas are forced to relocate. 

The Brazilian mining giant Vale has been accused of resettling communities in inadequate areas with poorly constructed homes, and is now trying to make amends. The Indian steel company Jindal, meanwhile, is still in the process of moving communities from its mining area.

Luácio Foia lives in the village of Kassoka, in Changara District, just a few kilometres from Jindal’s new mining area. Coal is already being extracted ahead of the mine’s official inauguration, which is planned for later this month.

In his current location, Foia is able to pan for gold to supplement his farming income. Outside his house, he points at the ground and says, “Even right here you can find gold, but in the creeks there is more. If I don´t have anything, I take my tools and I go to the creeks… No one starves here.”

Foia, his wife and their eight children are among 565 families in three communities facing resettlement to an area where panning for gold will no longer be an option.

Awaiting the move

Since Jindal moved into the area in 2008, the people of Kassoka have not been able to open up new fields for farming or build new houses. Foia says that some families have already lost fields to the mine. Although they were compensated according to the size of their fields, the amounts did not take into account the presence of gold in the area.

The villagers’ resettlement has been delayed, first by their refusal to move to the area the company had selected, and then by the provincial government, which rejected Jindal’s initial resettlement plan.

Arsénio Mahajane, who has been hired by Jindal to manage the dialog with the families awaiting resettlement, claims he is very satisfied with the process: the communities have chosen the site they want to move to and now they are just waiting for the provincial government to approve the new resettlement plan.

“We are lucky; we had the possibility to learn from what happened with Vale’s resettlement in Cateme,” he told IRIN. “It has been like a school for us, and we are taking that in to account.”

“There is no water where we are going, no river…They also say we will have electricity, but who will pay for the electricity?”

But Foia complains that Jindal has employed a local leader as an assistant as a way to silence the community.

“He doesn´t represent us anymore. He has been bought by the company. He even says it himself, ‘I have a good life now. I will lose my job if I tell them what you think’.”

Foia also has concerns about the site they will be moving to, which was selected by local leaders and which he has not seen for himself. “There is no water where we are going, no river. Imagine the day when our leaders start rationing the water. They also say that we will have electricity, but who will pay for the electricity? You have to have a job to pay for electricity.”


Vale was the first company to start exploring for coal in Tete, and remains the largest of seven coal-mining companies now operating in the province. Vale resettled around 5,000 people between 2006 and 2011, but the process was marred by conflict.

In January 2012, members of Vale’s largest resettled community, which was moved from Moatize to Cateme, one hour’s drive away, blocked the Sena Railway used to transport coal to the port of Beira to protest conditions in their new village. They said Cateme lacked transportation and jobs, that the soil was poor and that their houses were badly constructed without foundations.

Vale workers are now repairing a section of the pot-holed road between Moatize and Cateme and renovating houses that were built without foundations. Vale has also started a model farm to teach the community modern farming techniques and income-generating activities such as poultry breeding.

Luisa Antonio received a loan from Vale to build a chicken run and to buy chicken feed and medicine. The money will be deducted from the profits she earns when the chickens are sold.

“I gained 9,000 meticais (US$300) after I sold the first round of chickens,” she told IRIN. “That is a good payment; it relieves our poverty. But I don´t know how we will manage on our own. We have no transport and there is still no shop here that sells what we need for our business. Vale only helps us for the first four rounds [of breeding]. We are worried.”

However, Antonio is more hopeful than she was before the protest. The projects that Vale has implemented in the community are having an impact, she says, and “if they continue, life will change”. Her son is among 23 young people from the village who are receiving training from Vale on how to become machine operators.

“He will study there for a year… After that, they have promised to give him a job in the mine, but sometimes promises are broken, so you never know,” she said.

Stepping in

Following the protest, the provincial government also appears to have realized the need to become more involved in resettlement processes.

“We were not prepared – that was our mistake. We were not there when Vale started the resettlement process. A lot of things went wrong in the beginning,” said Américo Conceicão, acting provincial permanent secretary.

According to Conceicão, Vale used a consulting firm to negotiate with the population of Moatize, leaving local government in the dark about what promises were made and about the poor quality of houses built in Cateme.

“Now we are better prepared for new resettlement processes. We have created a model house, and we have an effective resettlement commission. We want to take the lead in the process,” he said.

However, Vale’s coal operations director, Altiberto Brandão, claims that they worked with local government from the beginning and that the houses are of good quality. “We built them five years ago, and not a single one has fallen apart yet. It is a cultural matter.”

Rui de Vasconcelos Caetano of the local organization AAACJ [Association for Judicial Assistance and Support to Communities], who has worked with the resettled communities from the beginning of the process, said that Brandão’s suggestion that cultural preferences accounted for the dissatisfaction with the houses was disrespectful.

AAACJ is encouraging community members to refuse Vale’s offer to renovate their houses, arguing that the houses should be completely rebuilt or that families should be given money to build their own houses. Still, many in the community have already accepted Vale’s offer to renovate.

De Vasconcelos Caetano is sceptical of some of the other measures that Vale has taken since the demonstrations. He argues, for instance, that the agricultural methods used on the model farm are unsustainable, since they use fertilizers and other inputs that the communities will not be able to afford on their own.

He is also not convinced that Jindal has learned anything from the Vale experience. AAACJ is now working with the communities facing relocation by Jindal, teaching them about their rights.
The people of Kassoka do not know when their move will take place. Jindal has promised that the new village will contain a clinic, a school, banks and shops, but construction cannot start until the provincial government approves the new plan.

awn/ks/rz source

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