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Archive for August 20th, 2008

African Icon Musician Miriam Makeba to attend Mela festival in Oslo – Norway 22-24 august

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

Posted to API by Ashley Shiri – Horisont

Miriam Makeba, Grammy-vinner og heltinne i kampen mot apartheid, holder konsert under rets Melafestival i Oslo 22.-24. august. Makeba har sunget med blant andre Harry Belafonte og Paul Simon og utgitt 30 album, og etter avskjedturneen i 2005 er det uhyre sjelden at stjernen gir konserter.

– Regjeringen har erklrt 2008 som mangfoldsret og Makeba er n av dem som har kjempet lengst for et mangfoldigverdenssamfunn, det er ogs derfor hun er FN-ambassadr. Det er en stor re for oss at hun besker Norge og skal synge p Melafestivalen. I 2005holdt hun sin avskjedskonsert, men hvis det er en stor og viktig nok sak gjr hun et unntak. Det har hun gjort for oss, sier Khalid Salimi, leder for Melafestivalen, som i samarbeid med Yara n kan nske en verdensstjerne velkommen til Osloog Rdhusplassen frstkommende fredag.

FN-ambassadr og stjerne
N 76 r gamle Miriam Makeba, ogs kjent som Mama Africa, er verdenskjent for sitt fredsskapende arbeid mot apartheid, hun er FN-ambassadr og regnes som Sr-Afrikas strste musikalske eksportvare. I mange r har hun hatt et stort norsk publikum. Makeba har sunget med stjerner som Harry Belafonte, Paul Simon og Dizzie Gillespie og har holdt bursdagskonsert for president John F. Kennedy. Hun har utgitt 30 album, hennes siste album, Makeba Forever, kom i 2006.I Oslo skal hun holde konsert p Rdhusplassen fredag 22. august kl 20.15. Konserten er gratis og er en del av Melafestivalen 22. -24. august.
– At konserten er gratis er helt i trd med de idealene som Mela og Horisont bygger p, nemlig gjre verdens kunst og kultur tilgjengelig for alle, sier Salimi.
Mela2008 drives av stiftelsen Horisont og arrangeres for 7. gang. Det er n av Norges tre strste festivaler, og Oslos desidert strste. 320 artister skal spillep Rdhusplassen og det er forventet et besk p 300000 festivalgjengere fra hele Norge og Norden.

Besket til Makeba er i kommet i stand i samarbeid med Yara International, som 28. og 29. august skal avholde en internasjonal konferanse om Afrika med Makeba til stede. Fredag 29. augustopptrer hun ogs under utdelingen av

societal_responsibility/green_rev_africa/yara_prize/2008_laurates.html > i Oslo.
– Samarbeidet med Melafestivalen har gjort det mulig for oss hente Afrikas strste artist til Yarapris-utdelingen. Miriam Makeba har vrt til inspirasjon for en generasjon av afrikanere og vil med sin opptreden under Yaraprisen gi en stemme til den utviklingen som er ndvendig i bekjempelsen av sult og fattigdom i dagens Afrika. rets Yaraprisvinnere, Florence Wambugu og Victor Mfinanga, som har vist lederskap innen utviklingen av landbruket i Afrika vil sette stor pris p Makebas opptreden, sier konserndirektr Arne Cartridge i Yara International.

Miriam Makeba, Mama Africa
*Synger i Oslo under Melafestivalen, fredag 22. august p Rdhusplassenogunder utdelingen av Yaraprisen29. august.
* Jazz/tradisjonell sanger
* Fdt 1932 i Johannesburg, Sr-Afrika.
* Har utgitt 30 album.
* Grammy-pris for An Evening With Belafonte/Makeba
i 1966.
* Nominert til Grammy for albumet Homeland i 2000.
* Har mottatt Dag Hammarskjlds fredspris i 1986 for sitt arbeid mot apartheid.
* Mistet sitt sr-afrikanske pass i 1959 og kom frst tilbake til hjemlandet i 1990, etter ha blitt invitert tilbake av Nelson Mandela.
* Blant hennes strste hits finner man Pata pata og The Click Song
* Har sunget med stjerner som Harry Belafonte, Paul Simon og Dizzie Gillespie.
* Har spilt i flere filmer, blant annet anti-apartheidfilmen Come Back Africa
* Melafestivalen er Oslos strste festival, med 320 artister ogca 300 000 beskende mellom 22. og 24. august. Alle konserter holdes p Rdhusplassen og er gratis. Melas nettside: <>


Published by Korir, Chief Editor, African Press International – API

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The Misleading Call for Circumcision

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

By Otieno Mbare, PhD (Research Fellow)

I would not have ventured into this sensitive debate if it did not have direct consequences for my children, the posterity of the Luo nation and other non-circumcising communities around the world. However, the debate has been fueled following a research that was carried out by some researchers in Kenya and Uganda and; consequently published in January 2008 in the BJU International. Had it not acquired political overtones that sought to authenticate an otherwise a lop-sided research whose methodology, validity, plausibility and veracity are in doubt, I would have not wasted my precious time debating it.

Yet, this issue touches on the very nerves of the communities that are not practicing circumcision. It is an old time debate that has been misguidedly used to show cultural superiority and supremacy among different communities. The same argument has sadly been used to stigmatize, lower the image and undermine the culture of the Luo community. Scientific research as evidenced in the Mexico conference has rejected that line of thinking as a dead-end research. It will further give a false hope that a cure has finally arrived albeit with devastating consequences to our society.

It is therefore surprising that none other than my friend Hon. Raila Odinga (no disrespect intended!), who has suffered the wrath of these cultural purists, was the one who went out prescribing the new medicine for the uncut. This happened a few days after receiving with his in-laws from central Kenya. I will not question Hon. Odingas wisdom but this is a very sensitive cultural issue that a person of his standing in Luoland and Kenya in particular, cannot afford to discuss it casually they way he did. I understand people have started saying derogatively that Luoland sasa ni kichinjoni because the PM has said so! The endorsement for circumcision in the Luo nation is totally unacceptable!

I dont intend to argue here that our culture is pure and superior. But, let me make it clear that there are certain cultural practices that need to be eradicated without legislation. Practices such as inheriting someones wife whose husband, probably died of aids and, other promiscuous habits. These are issues that have to be addressed and develop a common position not only for one community, but for the entire society. Abstention and regular use of the condom is the sure way out of the current HIV quagmire. This is what elected leaders should be advocating instead advocating for something which is meant to demean and portray our culture as inferior!

It is for this reason that most members of the community have felt provoked by an assault directed at our culture. Yet, the research is so hollow that there is no knowing whether the sample group and the control group had been subjected to a full-blown situation to validate their research finding! I do not want to dispute circumcision for those who are practicing it for it is seen as a rite of passage marking a boy’s entrance into adulthood. Sometimes it was performed as a means of suppressing sexual pleasure, or used as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was impractical. At other times, it is performed as a means of differentiating a circumcising group from their non-circumcising neighbors, as a means of discouraging masturbation, or to increase a man’s attractiveness to women, or as a symbolic castration.

The Luos have since used and abandoned other cultural practices that marks the passage of a boy to adulthood. We have refused to embrace circumcision for various reasons; First, circumcision is not part of our culture. It is foreign! Second, our other objection which is supported by the existing literatures and research is that circumcision changes physical sensitivity in the penis of a man.

A 2007 study funded by an organization which opposes circumcision, and published in the journal BJU International, found a difference in fine touch sensitivity between men who were circumcised and those who were uncircumcised (such that circumcised men had less sensitivity to fine touch in all but one area of the penis). This same study also compared the sensitivity thresholds at various points on the penis and concluded that the most sensitive part of the uncircumcised penis was more sensitive than the most sensitive parts of the circumcised penis. The authors argue that the parts of the penis removed by circumcision represent the most sensitive parts of the penis.

Similarly, in a poll conducted by an anti-circumcision organization, 61% of men who were circumcised as infants reported decreased sensation over time, which they report resulted in sexual dysfunction.

And recently, a study by DaiSik Kim and Myung-Geol Pang on the The effect of male circumcision on sexuality found there was a decrease in masturbatory pleasure and sexual enjoyment after circumcision, indicating that adult circumcision adversely affects sexual function in many men, possibly because of complications of the surgery and a loss of nerve endings. I do not want to speculate that some high-level conspiracy has been hatched to render Luo men dysfunctional. I will simply stick to the issue which can be corroborated through the overwhelming existing body of knowledge concerning the matter at hand.

Let me further buttress my argument by citing Erickson Paige 1978 article The Ritual of Circumcision, where she writes: “In the United States, the original reason for the surgical removal of the foreskin, or prepuce, was to control ‘masturbatory insanity’ (what the Luo would call, thelo-oyuma!) – the range of mental disorders that people believed were caused by the ‘polluting’ practice of ‘self-abuse.'”

And here, she describes “Self-abuse” as a terminology commonly used to describe masturbation in the 19th century. According to Paige, “treatments ranged from diet, moral exhortations, hydrotherapy, and marriage, to such drastic measures as surgery, physical restraints, frights, and punishment.

But how was this conundrum conceived in the bible. Because the Luo nation have always followed the bible and what was bequeathed to them by Ramogi at Go-Kwer! The scriptures, which my late father, Jakwath Festo Mbare made his constant book of reference says that the Council of Jerusalem in Acts of the Apostles 15 addressed the issue of whether circumcision was required of new converts to Christianity. Both Simon Peter and James spoke against requiring circumcision in Gentile converts and the Council ruled that circumcision was not necessary.

However, Acts 16 and many references in the Letters of Paul show that the practice was not immediately eliminated. Paul of Tarsus, who was said to be directly responsible for one man’s circumcision in Acts 16:1-3 and who appeared to praise Jewish circumcision in Romans 3:2, said that circumcision didn’t matter in 1 Corinthians 7:19 and then increasingly turned against the practice, accusing those who promoted circumcision of wanting to make a good showing in the flesh and boasting or glorying in the flesh in Galatians 6:11-13. In a later letter, Philippians 3:2, he is reported as warning Christians to beware the “mutilation”. These teachings and others reinforces the very beliefs we have upheld as a community.

Finally, the American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated “There are anecdotal reports that penile sensation and sexual satisfaction are decreased for circumcised males”. Boyle et al. stated that “the genitally intact male has thousands of fine touch receptors and other highly erogenous nerve endingsmany of which are lost to circumcision. They concluded, “Evidence has also started to accumulate that male circumcision may result in lifelong physical, sexual, and sometimes psychological harm as well.”

The caveat that I have to express is that circumcision has not, and will never be part of our culture. Who ever want to do it is free to do so without involving the community. But if you get circumcised, know that they are amputating your foreskin. One should be informed that the sensitivity that you feel, not only in that skin, but the surrounding tissues, including the glands, will be drastically affected and diminished.

Researchers also allege that not only are the nerve endings gone with the foreskin, but remaining nerve endings are severed, blood flow permanently disrupted, and the shaft skin will be tight, possibly painfully tight. Several months after this, the sensitivity remaining will begin to fade, and will continue to do so. The warning to our people is, Circumcision will damage your penis and your sexual ability; that’s what it does.

Even the British Medical Association has reported that there is significant disagreement about whether circumcision is overall a beneficial, neutral or harmful procedure. At present, the medical literature on the health, including sexual health, implications of circumcision is contradictory, and often subject to claims of bias in research.


Published by Korir, Chief Editor, African Press International – API

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Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

The Ivorian president, Laurent Gbagbo, arrived Monday evening in Banjul on a few days private visit.

On arrival at the Banjul International Airport, President Gbagbo told reporters that he was on holiday and that Africa is blessed with all it takes to make a good holiday. He noted that since becoming president, he had never spent his holiday outside the continent.

It is either in Cote dIvoire or in other parts of Africa, said Gbagbo, adding that with the sun, the sea, and all other natural features, its better to be here [in Africa] than to go to Europe or somewhere else, he said.

While it has not been specified as to how long he would stay in the country, but he is expected to make a courtesy call on President Yahya Jammeh, who is also presently on holiday at his farm in his village of Kanilai, about 50 kilometres away from Banjul.



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Mount Kenya’s destruction – World heritage site

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

Mount Kenya: Its beginning of the end of last snow

By Peter Thatiah

In December 1997, the World Heritage Committee declared the rugged glacier-clad summits, the afro-alpine moorlands and diverse forests an illustration of the most outstanding ecological processes.

Stone mining at Mutonga river bed.

Consequently, Unesco named Mount Kenya a World Heritage Site.

But while the stature of the only snow-capped mountain on the Equator continues to rise, the important biosphere reserve is moving towards ecological oblivion.

Indeed, as has been confirmed, we are the first generation to witness the last snow on Mount Kenya, an eventuality likely to trigger climatic changes and directly endanger livelihoods, irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.

Since 1899, humans have made use of machetes, power saws and axes in the mountain, leaving desecrated wetlands that made the glaciers to retreat.

When celebrated geologist J W Gregory surveyed the mountain in 1893, there were 18 glaciers. Today, as mountain climbing chief rescue officer Simon Gitau confirms, experts can only count 10.

Furthermore, on maps produced in the early 1960s, the famous Lewis Glacier is shown descending into the Lewis Tarn (at 4,700m), whereas today, its tip ends almost 100m above the tarn. As one begins to climb the mountain, the intense patchwork of cultivation and habitation skirting the bulk is left behind; and at 1,900m the forests begin.

Dense forests

Due to the prevailing winds, the southern and eastern slopes of the mountain are the wettest, and these are cloaked in dense forest festooned in vine-like lianas, hung with epiphytes (parasitic plants that grow on the trees), and dominated by giant camphor trees. The forest floor is a carpet of ferns, orchids and flowering plants.

On the other side of the mountain, the drier climate promotes a forest dominated by smaller conifer-type trees, such as podocarpus (locally known as podo) and cider.

The ground cover is similar to that of the moisture forest, but there are no hanging lianas. To the local people, however, there is nothing in their vocabulary called Mount Kenya forest. On the Nyeri side, the names used are Ragati and Hombe.

On the Meru District side, it is Imenti Forest and on the Embu side, it is Irangi Forest.

There is a national park, a national reserve and a forest on the upper slopes of Mount Kenya. A brief explanation of their positioning gives pointers to the ecological developments of the entire water tower.

Mount Kenya National Park cuts on the 10,500ft contour line on the mountain, above the forested area.

Mining has destabilised the forest ecosystem.

The area is within the national reserve, which skirts all the way to the farmlands below.

National reserve

The national park was gazetted in 1949, leaving the entire forest under the management of the Forest Department.

It wasnt until 2000 when the forest was gazetted as a national reserve, thus ensuring it was under the protection of both the Forest Department and KWS. Satellite image surveys made available to The Standard show it was during this time that wanton destruction of the forest was checked.

But how big was the forest before the destruction started? There are active district forest stations around the mountain, all of which keep data pertaining to their side of the mountain.

Forest working groups and networks, and with unofficial support from Forest Department officers, say the forest was six times as big a century ago.


Today, according to the Forest Department, the whole of Mount Kenya forest is 272,269ha under natural forest and 8,674 under plantation forests. KWS puts it at 2000km sq.

Though the wettest and the most influencing in terms of climatic conditions, Mount Kenya forest is the most decimated of all five water towers of Kenya.

The rest include the Aberdare range, the Mau complex, Mount Elgon and Cherangani hills, also the source of all major rivers except Tsavo River, which has its source in Mount Kilimanjaro.

The destruction of Mount Kenya started in the early 1900s.

Before gazettement of the national park in 1949, there was a sustained spree of camphor harvests and shipments to Europe. Early literature shows Mount Kenya was the only place rich in the coveted camphor trees.

Secondly, as Adam Smith demonstrates in his book Kenya, Kikuyu and the Mau Mau, the Colonial Government failed in Mount Kenya because it didnt follow the Aberdare conservation model.

In the Aberdare, which is the least desecrated water tower in Kenya, the Government used pseudo-gangs as forest rangers, in effect former Mau Mau renegades who understood the forest better.

The big question today is what authorities should do to make reparation for the damage done.



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Kenya: A fight with a crocodile is no easy task!

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

Man who fought crocodile and survived

Published on 19/08/2008

By Ngumbao Kithi

Every year, crocodiles prey on many people in Tana River.

The few who escape from the jaws of the reptiles are considered lucky.

Mr Hillary Amuma has lived to tell his story. He vividly remembers how a crocodile grabbed him from the edge of the river.

A section of the crocodile-infested Tana River in Hola.


After a half an hours fight with the beast, he won the battle but sustained serious injuries. He gathered himself and limped home a victorious man.

Amuma had a deep cut on his left thigh and cuts on his left arm, but he bore them gallantly. When he looked at the battle scene, he saw the reptile retreat into the waters, probably angry for losing a fight that could have claimed the life of a young man.

This was the ordeal of 26-year-old Amuma, who cheated death four years ago.


Amuma says he got away with his life because he remembered the traditional method he was taught long ago how to fight a crocodile.

The method calls for courage, quick decision and precision or else you become food for the reptile.

The incident is fresh in his mind as though it took place yesterday.

It all started when Amuma went home one afternoon and found his wife had nothing to cook for lunch.

“I was hungry and had no penny. I had to go out to fetch something for our,” he said.

Dressed in a black pair of shorts and bare-chested, Amuma fetched his fishing rod and walked to an irrigation canal off the Tana, a kilometer away, to catch fish.

Fish in Tana River has made life easy for the Pokomo people. It is their staple food.

“I threw my hook into the river and caught one fish, went ahead and got a second and a third. When I tried to get the fourth, my left was bitten and I felt being pulled down. I never realised what was happening,” he said.

Something had bitten his thigh, he knew, and when he tried to hit it with his left hand, the grip on the leg did not budge. It soon dawned on him that he was in the jaws of a crocodile.

Fast action

The short and lean man, with a permanent frown on his face, had to think fast to save himself.

“I turned to face the animal that had gripped my thigh tight, ready to make mince meat of me. I looked back at the village, down the riverbank, and there was no one to help. I realised I was going to die, unless I did something very fast,” he says.

Women draw water as children bathe in the crocodile-infested river.

With that realisation, came a flash of survival tactics he was taught by his grandfather. He threw away his fishing gear to struggle to live or die.

By then, the crocodile was pulling him deep into the river as his left hand bled profusely from bites sustained in the struggle.

With the index and middle fingers of his right hand, Amuma jabbed into the crocodiles eyes and jumped back at the first sign that the reptiles jaws were slackening.

But when he tried to run away, it leapt over him, jaws wide open. Again, it came in direct contact with the fingers aimed at both its eyes.

“That is how I escaped. The Pokomo say a crocodile fears being touched in the eyes and once that is done, it becomes immobile and lets go,” says Amuma.

Amumas story, to any other person who is not a Pokomo, sounds unbelievable.

He says the eyes of the crocodile are its most sensitive part and it recoils when hit.

Amuma says only those who understand the survival tactics taught to the Pokomo can escape the iron grip of the beast.

“A real Pokomo man cannot be scared by a crocodile, I just aimed my fingers at its eyes and the reptile became immobile,” he said.

According to him, this explains why Pokomo people are said to live alongside crocodiles without fear.

“There is a myth that a Pokomo fisherman can get on top of a crocodile and be ferried across Tana River,”he adds with a ting of pride in his voice.

Bleeding profusely, he recalls how he took a step back and watched the hungry reptile swim back into the river.

Mr Amuma, who lives in Amuma village, was treated at the nearby Wema Dispensary and discharged.

He says he hopes to be compensated by the Kenya Wildlife Service.



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Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

In a report released Monday to the United Nations Security Council, the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said that the struggle with the rule of law and competition over natural resources threatens Liberias fragile stability despite its economy showing significant improvement.

Overall, the main threats to peace and stability emanate from the law and order maintenance issues, Mr. Ban reported, while recommending a 12-month extension to the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) through September 2009.

Much still needs to be done urgently to strengthen the capacities of both the police and the army, and facilitate their effective presence in the country, Mr. Ban added.

The UN Secretary General proposes expanding the size of the UNMIL police units from 605 to 845 officers, and calls on Liberias international partners to urgently provide assistance in building a national police force.

The recent surge in fuel and food prices as well as political instability in neighboring Guinea and Cte dIvoire could also have negative implications for security in Liberia.

Mr. Ban, however, recommends continuing with the planned reduction in UNMIL military personnel leaving a troop strength of just over 10,000 by September 2009.

UNMIL will be able to continue to discharge its mandate of maintaining a stable and secure environment and providing the necessary security umbrella throughout the country to enable the government to continue its reform and restructuring programme, Mr. Ban reported.



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Rwandan rebels accused of murdering American tourists seek US asylum

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

Three Rwandan rebels who had confessed to brutally killing two American tourists on a safari vacation in a Ugandan national park on March 1, 1999 are now seeking political asylum in the United States, while they are supposed to go on trial later this month in Washington DC, facing a possible death sentence.

Francois Karake, Gregoire Nyaminani and Leonidas Bimenyimana, all members of the Liberation Army of Rwanda were extradited to Washington DC in 2003 after being charged with the murder of Robert Haubner, and his wife, Susan Miller, in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

The American couple from Oregon had been kidnapped along with six other tourists: four British citizens and two New Zealanders by more than 150 Rwandan rebels. They were beaten and bludgeoned to death with axes and machetes.

The US Justice Departments criminal division wanted the indictment to serve as a warning to those who commit acts of terror against Americans.

But in August 2006, the case fell apart when a federal judge in Washington, DC, threw out the case after saying the three mens confessions to the 1999 killings had been obtained through torture by Rwandan military officials.

In her 150-page ruling US District Judge Ellen Segal Huvelle, wrote: It is the governments burden to prove that the defendants multiple statements were each the product of an essentially free and unconstrained choice.

In court documents, US prosecutors said the brutal killings were intended as part of a conspiracy to send a message to the United States that it should not support the Rwandan government.

The seven hostages who survived, among them American Mark Ross, were given a handwritten note by the Liberation Army commander with instructions to deliver it to the US ambassador. The note accused the United Sates of supporting the Tutsi minority in Rwanda in oppressing and massacring the Hutus.

Karake, Nyaminani and Bimenyimana now claim they fear they will be tortured or murdered by Rwandan authorities if returned to their native country. Their “fear of persecution” is outlined in a memo to Judge Huvelle filed by defense attorneys, who disclosed the asylum applications.

At a hearing, the three Rwandans would need to establish that they have a credible fear of persecution if they were to be deported back to Rwanda. In documents released in March 2007, Amnesty International said it feared the men would be tortured or killed if they were returned.

The Rwandan authorities had charged that the 10 Rwandan nationals who took part in the murders were members of the Liberation Army of Rwanda, an armed group seeking to overthrow the countrys government.

US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the investigative arm of US Homeland Security, has detained the three men at an undisclosed location pending a hearing in their asylum request. They had been held at the Washington DC Jail for nearly four years.

The Liberation Army of Rwanda was formed in 1996, the result of a merger of the former Armed Forces of Rwanda (FAR), the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of approximately 1 million Tutsis in 1994 and the Interahamwe, the civilian militia force that assisted that genocide.



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Rwanda formally requests Sweden to extradite genocide suspect

Posted by African Press International on August 20, 2008

Rwanda has formally filed a petition to the Swedish government requesting for the extradition of Rwandan national Sylvere Ahorugeze suspected of complexity in the 1994 genocide, the Rwandan minister of Justice and attorney general Tharcisse Karugarama confirmed on Monday.

Ahorugeze has been in detention in Sweden for about a month following 11 months in a Danish prison. He was detained in Denmark but released by the court for lack of evidence.

\”It\’s very true that we have officially made our request to the Swedish authorities for a possible extradition of the Rwandan genocide suspect who was arrested there recently,\” Karugarama told APA by phone.

He said the request is accompanied with several documents of evidence to support Rwanda\’s case.

He expressed faith in the Swedish authorities to fairly examine the request and accept the extradition of Ahorugeze so that he can face trial in Rwanda.

Karugarama said Rwanda sent 130 pages of documents and statements supporting the allegations against Ahorugeze who was detained in Sweden about a month ago on suspicion of committing crimes against humanity in Rwanda. He is alleged to have been involved in killings of dozens of people in his residence of Gikondo in Kigali.

But according to the Deutsche Presse-Agentur (DPA) the bulky documents have first to be translated —a process likely to take about 20 days — before the prosecution can present its case against Ahorugeze to a Swedish district court within 8 days.

If the court upholds his detention the Supreme Court will then rule on the extradition, suggesting that a decision is not likely to be taken before late October, according to DPA.



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