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Archive for August 15th, 2007

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

Dakar (Senegal) The Niger Movement for Justice (MNJ), which launched an armed rebellion last February in the Northern region of Niger, accused the government of intending to lead the country into a civil war whereas MNJs move is aimed at prompting the government to promote “more justice, equal opportunities and respect of human rights in the country”.

In a telephone interview with APA Wednesday, a rebel spokesperson rejected the various initiatives and statements by the traditional leaders of the Agadez region and the civil society in Niamey.

According to the MNJ spokesman who requested anonymity, the so-called traditional leaders meeting is a scheme to re-supply the Izerwan barracks currently surrounded by the rebel movement. “This strategy will not pay off,” he declared.

“We want to lure the Army out of the villages to fight with them, but they refuse clashes and would rather stay in inhabited places where we dont want to attack because of civilians,” he added, blaming the government troops for the shells fired on houses.

The spokesman said a possible external mediation is not currently their priority. “The government should first acknowledge us as a full Niger movement fighting for the promotion of the rights and respect of populations, no matter the region”.

According to him, it is wrong to beleive that his movement is only in the north of the country. “We are everywhere in the country, even though most of our operations are carried out from the North,” he said.

“We will be ready to negotiate whenever the authorities decide to acknowledge our movement,” the spokesman further told APA.

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Visual Designs in Corporate Identity

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

By: Stewart Mafeni (Malawi National Examinations Board)

Corporate Identity relates to the visual images used throughout an organization to create a particular image that it wants to project to its customers.

Corporate Id is far more than simply a logo. It is the way people look, the way they behave, their uniform and the image of all the products and the services the organization provides.

In Malawi, theres multiparty democracy with several political parties. But it is through their parties identity that their differences are displayed.

Monolithic identity as an approach to corporate identity. In this, same colours are used and the same logo is consistently applied to help tie all the products of a particular company together or party manifestos together.

Endorsed identity involves linking different products together with an endorsement, such as a company badge, trademark or symbol, e.g Toyota symbol, you have different sizes of Toyota but one company symbol.

Branded identity is adopted by many confenctionery and sweet manufacturers. This allows a company to capitalize on a market and helps to eliminate competitors.

Visual designs play a greater role in several aspects. It has the power to sustain customers of a particular company or disperse them.The same applies to a political party.

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Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

By: Stewart A. Mafeni, Malawi National Examinations Board.

The phrase visual language refers to the idea that communication occurs through visual symbols, as opposed to verbal symbols, or words.

Words are also symbols, of course. They are not the thing itself, although traditional religious ideas have often centered around the idea that the word and the thing are the same.

It is for this reason that, for example, in more than one religion it is forbidden to speak or write the name of God, and in most faiths great reverence is given to the written scripture.

Also, words can take on symbolic meanings that may go beyond the literal definition.

The word black, for example, became a highly charged symbol of political and social realities for African Americans in the 1960’s.

The meaning and use of this term has shifted somewhat since that time, though it continues to carry meanings that might not be apparent to someone just learning English.

There are also nonverbal symbols that we respond to as messages, though often without realizing exactly what it is that has caused us to reach a certain conclusion.

These symbols are often visual, though they can be auditory or even tactile. The power of music as a non-verbal, auditory language is very apparent. Nonverbal symbols reach us via the eyes.

Those who understand nonverbal, especially visual language can and do manipulate our attitudes to suit their purposes. Yet often we respond to visual messages unconsciously, preferring to believe that our opinions are formed by our own good judgement and personal taste.

Therefore we may fail to recognize that visual signals may affect our opinions about policy issues and social values, or even our preferences in cars, music, or fashions.

For example, the body language, dress, and expressions of a politician in this television age often seem to be as crucial to the success of a party’s program as the policies and ideas he holds.

The wrong nonverbal signals, and we simply do not trust that person on the screen, whatever his ideals and character may really be.

On the other hand, effective use of visual signals can make us overlook a great deal in a politician’s background.

There have been many examples of both situations in the past years, since television has become such a powerful presence in Malawian

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The wrong people doing design

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

Written by: Stewart Mafeni (Malawi National Examinations Board) 

If you wanted to persuade people that martial arts were an effective means of self-defense, would you hire a painter, or Jackie Chan? (Believe me, you’d want Jackie Chan.)

Design won't take root in your company or organization  unless people see it done by experts. The vast majority of companies I've seen try to bring design in-house by telling some programmers that they're now designers, or by having the personal secretaries do some design in their spare time.
Although the need for designers varies during the projects life cycle, design is a full-time job as well as a profession that requires many years of practice and training. Good interaction designers are hard to find, but they do exist - hire them! 
When you're trying to bring the idea of design as a profession into an organization, it's important to realize that you're not just changing a process -- you're attempting to change the company's culture and dearly held beliefs.  It's entirely possible to change any company, but it will take a clear goal for where you want to be, a plan for getting there, executive sponsorship, and excellent communication about the benefits of change. 
Change on this scale isn't easy, but isn't that true of just about everything that's worth doing? Find allies within your organization, look to designers outside your organization for moral support, and don't forget to celebrate your successes, because you will have some. 
Every time I get discouraged about the state of the industry, I remind myself those five years ago, no one knew what visual designing involves except those of us who did it. Today, marketers, developers, and executives call me up  asking for digital visual design. We must be doing something right, after all, every field has specialists.
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Digital Tools in visual Designs

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

By: Stewart A. Mafeni (Malawi National Examinations Board)

Visual designs are nonverbal arts that reach us via the eyes. Visual designs are divided according to the kinds of materials that are used and the way the designs are produced. In this way, three dimensional objects are distinguished from photographs, prints and paintings.

Digital tools have now become integral parts of the process of making art. In this focus is put on computer assisted art or visual designs. This modernistic trend in pursuing art or visual designs is referred to as Digital art.

Digital art can be purely computer-generated, such as fractals, or taken from another source, such as a scanned photograph, or an image drawn using vector graphics software using a mouse or graphics tablet.

Although technically the term may be applied to art done using other media or processes and merely scanned in, it is usually reserved for art that has been non-trivially modified by a computing process (such as a computer program, microcontroller or any electronic system capable of interpreting an input to create an output); digitized text data and raw audio and video recordings are not usually considered digital art in themselves, but can be part of a larger project.

Digital art is produced by using electronic versions of brushes, filters and enlargers, these “Neographers” produce images unattainable through conventional photographic tools. In addition, digital artists may manipulate scanned drawings, paintings, collages or lithographs, as well as using any of the above-mentioned techniques in combination. Artists also use many other sources of information and programs to create their work.

By the concept digital tools in visual designs emphasis is on computer aided visual designs as opposed to conventionally drawn or panted visual designs. The objective is to produce images of high quality surpassing that attainable by conventional drawings or paintings. Furthermore, reproducibility and mass production are both attainable with computer assisted visual designs.

The concept of digital tools in visual designs was propounded way back in the 1920s. Bauhaus, a school for art and architecture in the 1920s, promoted the idea that artful objects should be partnered with technology to create livable solutions to living spaces. Simply put, Bauhaus design offers practical, durable, inexpensive, yet aesthetically pleasing designs. To most, Bauhaus may mean a modernistic approach to architecture, visual designs or art, but artists, architects or designers can use the concepts of Bauhaus to provide easy solutions for making their respective tasks in their professions fully functional while retaining the unique aspects of their artful skills.

The visual designs that are produced using digital tools stand out in several aspects. For those individuals who have the ability to visualize and see the world in pictures. Such designs depict a unique touch which is not attainable conventionally.

The design abilities of artists, architects or designers are affected positively with digital tools. This is so because of greater possibilities that digital tools are able to offer to an artist or a designer.

Digital artists create in their minds video-like images from either actual daily experiences or translations of written information into pictures. These pictures are later digitally encoded unto the graphic software in a computer.

Visual Artists think in photographically specific images. Children who are visual thinkers will often be good at drawing, other arts, and building things with building toys such as Lego’s. Many children who are visual thinkers like maps, flags, and photographs. And these children can be introduced to digital tools in their early developmental stages so that they should sharpen their skills in visual designs.

In the long run skilled visual thinkers will be produced who will be well suited to jobs in drafting, graphic design, training animals, auto mechanics, jewelry making, construction, and factory automation. This will be the case because these people think in pictures or images. These images are first created in their minds and are later drawn on suitable surfaces. These surfaces may be a paper, wall, plank, pulpwood etc.

Besides the suitable surface, artists draw with chalk, charcoal, crayon, or pencil. They may use a liquid, such as ink, applied with a brush or pen for painting or drawing purposes. Sometimes it becomes very expensive to acquire all these items. As a result, most visual thinkers get discouraged and the talents in them are not nurtured or sharpened. In the end, most visual thinkers retract from investing more of their skills in visual designs thereby denying the field of the attention it deserves.

If I have no picture, I have no thought. Unfortunately I never had an opportunity to try trigonometry or geometry. Teachers and parents need to develop the child’s talents into skills that can eventually turn into satisfying jobs or hobbies thereby assisting in community development through visual designs that have to be appreciated aesthetically.

Visual Thinking

Visual thinking refers to a group of generative skills that, when practiced with rigorous discipline, results in the production of novel and original graphic ideas. By seeking to discover visual forms that fit his/her underlying human experience, the student of visual thinking comes to know the world. This practice of thinking with images alone is stressed in University Entrance Examinations in order to balance the over-emphasis on verbal reasoning in other areas of education. Visual thinking is high order critical thinking conducted by imaginative means alone.

Unfortunately, the Malawi or Africa education system do appreciate that the field of visual designs affect our opinions about policy issues and social values, or our preferences on fashions and every day life. This is the case because it is looked at as old fashioned because it is still pursued the conventional way.

For example, in colleges or schools where art related courses are offered, there are a few or no students patronizing it. In some cases, students register for art courses simply to make up for their course combinations during their early years of college or school education. Evidently, at Chancellor College, a constituent College of the University of Malawi, more students enroll for fine arts in their first year of study simply to satisfy the course combination requirement. When they happen to get to their second year of study most of them drop out of fine arts leaving a few students who may proceed to their third year and drop out thereafter. At the end of the programme one or two may graduate having specialized in fine arts.

However, this trend can be reversed with the idea of digital tools in visual designs. A computer in the visual designs will act as a driving force. Instead of using computers only when visual artists happen to visit an internet caf, they will use computers in their day to day work. By digital tools in visual designs, it means that without a computer, art, visual designs cannot be produced by a digital artist.

Digital tools refer to the media used to produce Visual designs.

Advantages of using digital tools as opposed to conventional means are many as such it stands out. Digital tools have enabled interactivity in the art field. The Singapore Arts Magazine, 2001, stipulates that artists interact with machines to create further interaction with viewers who either summon up the art on their own machines or manipulate it through pre-programmed routines, which can vary according to the commands or movements of a viewer.

Secondly, artists working with digital media are just utilizing another medium for expression while observing the contemporary context and the ramifications that the increasing digitization of day-to-day life has on the society.

Thirdly, art works produced digitally are easy to store for a long period of time. As a result digital prints are reproducible any time they are needed.

Fourthly, digitized designs are exhibited electronically on the internet or world wide web thereby reaching out to a wider audience without any geographical barriers.

With conventional designs, there is a limitation in terms of exhibition. A gallery is physically placed in a specific geographical location as such theres geographical barrier. For a patron to view the visual designs he/she is expected to travel to where the gallery is situated.

Another advantage is longevity; Wilhelm states that todays digital printing technology, fading of colours does not occur for 60 to 100 years. Printer tones are long lasting.

These count more in digital art as opposed to contemporary arts. On a different note, the concept of a computer in visual designs will be a motivating factor to art students in different schools and colleges thereby allowing for more patrons in the field.

Appropriate Digital tools

The appropriate computers for this form of art are iMac Computers G3, G4 or G5 with Mac OS operating systems, Flatbed scanners, Laser Printers that can print multicolour documents. The OS X system has several versions ranging from version 9 through 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, to 10.5.

Macs are good and stable for art. Bowler argues that the very obvious advantage over PCs is that nobody is writing viruses to attack Macs. The OS X system is very powerful and stable.

In a final analysis, using digital tools in visual designs is very feasible. This will help artists to avoid some overhead expenditure.

All artistic tools are compacted in the digital tools that an artist uses. As such no requirement to buy extras e.g. chalk, pencil, paint etc. This is so because these neographers are contained in the art software that digital artists use.

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Kenya: Tourism

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

Tourism is a growing international trade which Kenya as a country cannot and should never ignore. It is one industry which even the richest of the rich of the countries have already realized that they can never ignore. The top countries in the world in tourism earnings read as follows; USA, Spain, France, Italy and Germany. Each of these earn in terms of over 30 Billion US $ Annually. In terms of visitors annually they read as France, Spain, USA, China and Italy and each receiving over 40 million visitors annually.

In terms of regional sharing of the fortune minting industry, Europe takes the lion share in excess of 50% of the market share. Africa controls a measly 4.4% of the trade. This just indicates how the fortune minting industry is taken seriously by the developed world. Yet Africa with all the attraction, endowment and opportunities is nothing in the trade. Then where is Africa competitive?

Kenya for instance is a country well endowed with beautiful and very attractive natural landscape, beautiful coastline, cultural, strategic placement, wildlife, diverse languages, ecology and so many other factors. How many tourists is she expected to receive this year? Slightly above 1.2 million tourists. Revenues are expected to hit Kshs 54 Billion. Not a bad figure considering where we have come from especially after the horrible and extremely evil Likoni clashes of 1997 and the many negative travel advisories and the wanting infrastructure particularly the road network and an economy which for a while was limping.

Kudos to Kenya Tourism Board (KTB) for the good work it has been doing. Aggressive marketing to various sources of tourists in various part of the world (diversification) and branding of tourists sites such as the Meru National Park in Eastern province has given the industry a new impetus. However more need to be done.

With growing economies and new emerging economic powers such as China, Brazil and India the tourism industry is bound to grow in leaps and bounds. Already it is estimated that outbound travelers from India is set to hit over 16.3 million in 2011 alone. Yet Kenya has a great cultural, diplomatic and trade ties with India. There are many Indian immigrants in Kenya which is a great selling point of the hospitality of Kenyans and an open society to boot.

The root linkage emerging from the construction of Kenya Uganda railway in the turn of last century is a great historical link which shows a strong roots and links with the sub-continent. The emerging middle class in India is a group worth targeting. Remember about one tenth of the over 6 Billion people in the world today are Indians of ages below 35 who are increasingly growing into middle class, what with their attainment of high education and their superb exploits in the fields of Information Communication Technology (ICT) especially with leverage on Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO’s).

The problems bedeviling the industry in Kenya today are to be found in poor infrastructure particularly the road network, insecurity and limited hotel facilities (accommodation) among others. These are issues that can be easily addressed by the government by greater investment in road network, tougher and expansion of the policing force which is better remunerated and motivated as well as incentives for investments. This is an industry which can easily wipe out unemployment in the face of the overwhelmingly beautiful country known as Kenya. Imagine if we received 10 million visitors annually and a good portion of them being high net worth?

There is hope though. The government has been very keen to give incentive meant to spur economic growth. Nonetheless KTB need to be better funded and developed further. Investment in the board by the government has already proven to be highly rewarding. Thus it is very sensible to expect the government to improve the budget for KTB going forward and the ministry of Tourism and Wildlife one of the well funded promoted and protected. It is through this ministry that we can protect the goose which will continue laying the golden eggs.

ikunda1.jpgBy API*APN East African Correspondent

Harrison Mwirigi Ikunda,
P.O. Box 51806,
Nairobi.

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Kenya: Lucas Mboya: Who killed my father?

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007


Whoever killed Mboya made one mistake. They should have killed me too because If I can expose them I will, be they dead or alive. And I do believe that the real architect of Mboyas murder is alive and well.

My name is Lucas Mboya. I am 39 years old. My father, the late, great, Thomas Joseph Mboya, died violently at 39 years old. My late brother Peter Mboya, died violently at the age of 39 years old. (10 months apart). If there is some jinx that prevents a Mboya man from passing 40 years old. Let me take this opportunity to get a load off my chest.

When my late father died I was I had been on Gods good earth for 21 months.
As I grew up I had to grope my way around trying to find out who my father was and why he had been killed. Answers I got ranged from he was a criminal and CIA agent, to he was next in line for the Presidency, which I do now believe was the case.
What I would like to do now is explore the real reason why Tom Mboya was killed and by whom. I will for legal reasons make many references to a book, Tom Mboya, The Man Kenya Wanted to Forget, David Goldsworthy.

My goal is to first get Kenyans to understand that I believe my fathers death was the point in Kenyas history that the two most influential tribes parted, both publicly and permanently and this acrimony has been the root cause of most of the political problems Kenya has had to date. Additionally, I do believe that without a genuine Truth and Reconciliation Commission in place Kenyans will never breach the tribalism gap that has been entrenched in our psyche.

Its no secret that Kenya politics is not about policies, but about tribes and communities. As a result rampant corruption abounds. It is simply not possible to deal with corruption without dealing first with tribalism. Tribalism feeds corruption.

Lets also understand that appreciation of ones tribe and customs is right and important. What is wrong is assuming that because ones tribe is different, that therefore ones tribe or community is better, or has rights that others should not enjoy. The saying from animal farm, all animals are equal but some are more equal than others comes to mind.

I also intend to make a formal request to the Kenya Government and the Chief Justice in particular to give me and make public the transcripts of the trial of one, Nahashon Njenga who was accused and sentenced to death for the murder of Tom Mboya. This I believe is my God given right. I am Mboyas his son and I want to know what happened and if I feel justice was not done, then I have the right to pursue whatever justice I can get in any manner that I can get it under Kenyan and International Law.

Whoever killed Mboya made one mistake. They should have killed me too because If I can expose them I will, be they dead or alive. And I do believe that the real architect of Mboyas murder is alive and well. By the time you finish reading this piece I am sure that not only will you understand who I am talking about but you will be able to join the dots and see why I believe this man (and others) were responsible.

In Goldworthys book, his chapter on The Politics of Survival He says:
At any rate, by late 1967 the new factional lines were clearly visible: so much so that talk of Kanu A and Kanu B was becoming quite common. On one side Kanu A was the formidable coalition which we have referred to so far as the inner group, but which was variously know as the Kikuyu group, the Gatundu group, the Court: Mungai, Njonjo and Koinange, all very close to the President and with them Moi (vice president since early1967 in succession to Murumbi) and somewhat less powerful Kukuyu such as Gichuru, Kiano and Kibaki (though on issues of economic policy Kibaki and others usually stood with Mboya).On the other side was Mboya. He too had his multi tribal supporting group which at ministerial level included Ngala (Giriama), Ayodo (Luo), Sagini (Kisii), Otiende (luyha), Nyagah (Embu) and Eliud Mwendwa (Kamba). In general he had the backing of the Kanu Luo, the anti-Ngei Kamba, the pro Ngala Coastals, and MPs from the North East. All told there were perhaps 60 of the 158 Members. A third group, including at ministerial level Argwings Kodhek and Angaine was generally seen as neutral.

The Gatundu groups jealousy and fear of Mboya emerged with extreme clarity at a private meeting of the full Kanu parliamentary group in March 1968, the first time the issue was directly joined in such a large gathering and in the presence of Kenyatta himself. Subsequent leaked accounts had it that it was the Attorney General who led the attack.Njonjo delivered an address full of aspersions against Mboyas ambitions and his American connections. Mboya argued back strongly. Then there was a crucial intervention on Mboyas side by Bruce McKenzie a man uniquely placed in more ways than one, not one of the Kikuyu group but certainly enjoying its confidence. He reminded Kenyatta of the story of the monarch whose kingdom prospered while his able son did everything but which fell into disarray after the king disposed of him when jealous courtiers spread lies about him and his ambitions. In this case Mzee listened and the attack failed.

It is clear from this incident that there was a cabal in Government that were determined to see Mboya out at any cost, led by Njonjo.

The Government at this stage (1967) set up a committee with Kenyattas approval to propose a succession formula to replace the existing one under which if the President died in office the Assembly would elect a successor for the balance of his term (this formula had ironically been drafted by Mboya and Njonjo in 1964).
According to Goldsworthy, the Gatundu group now feared that if Mboya were given an opening under .(these) arrangements he could mesmerize parliament and ensure his own election.

He continues Accordingly in March the Government introduced a constitutional amendment bill providing that if the President died, the vice President would automatically succeed him for the rest of his term.. Mboyas position was saved, however by the genuine anger and resentment of almost all of the back-bench MPs at this further erosion of parliamentary power. Confronted by their flat refusal to pass the bill, the government meaning essentially the Gatundu group presented in April a revised version under which the vice president would succeed for six months after which there would be a national election.

In May, while this was being debated Kenyatta suffered a mild stroke. Thereupon Njonjo and Moi, without consulting Cabinet hurriedly put up a third version whose effect was to retain the six-month interim president but to reduce his powers in certain areas. Obviously with this further watering-down they hoped for quick Parliamentary approval. Still concerned above all to block Mboya, they however added a completely new clause raising the minimum age of Presidential candidates from thirty five to forty (Mboya was thirty nine). And again here they miscalculated.

Ministers and MPs of almost all persuasions were angry at so blatant a manouevre; and the Assembly refused once again to be taken for granted. Moreover Kenyatta soon recovered, and was incensed to find his close lieutenants apparently assuming him as good as dead and busily ensuring their own security. He intervened personally to withdraw the bill and in a turbulent cabinet meeting in which, it is said, Kenyatta told off Moi and Njonjo is scorching terms a fourth and final version was worked out.

From these accounts and from discussions with friends and relatives who were mature at the time I have concluded that clearly, Njonjo, Koinange and Mungai were determined to get my father out of the way of Presidential succession and were becoming more and more desperate by the day especially as Kenyattas health faltered. Moi as Vice President was the pawn they would use to thus consolidate themselves in case of Kenyattas demise.

My father I believe was interested in power. But not for the reasons the others wanted the same.

Goldworthy says Mboya felt, then, growing dissatisfactions with the international development effort, and more especially with the economic behaviour of the Western powers. To this should probably be added a disenchantment with the attitudes and behaviour of African ruling groups themselves. Mboya certainly felt that policy making and administrative elites should be properly paid for their leadership role; but massive and rapid capital accumulation through the opportunistic fusing of political, administrative, and business roles was a different matter. It must have appeared to him as a perversion of the whole developmental purpose, and as something of a betrayal of the ideas he had tried to work out for Kenya and Africa. As Gertzel puts it,

Mboya stood essentially for a rational economic development as opposed to any short-term policies that might benefit one group at the future expense of the country as a whole. He argued explicitly for broad limits of planning within which the politics of influence must be contained. It implied a challenge to any one group that wanted immediate benefits at the cost of future development, and was likely in particular to arouse opposition from a burgeoning economic class .

And again Of course he was ambitious to get and keep power; and it was surely true that Mboya, perhaps more than any other member of the Governing elite, sought to use power in the social interest.

To me it is clear that a rift had emerged between Mboya and the Gatundu group led by Njonjo based on their fear and jealousy of him and the fact that they saw power as a means to rapid financial accumulation which was against Mboyas ideals. Such a person would not do as a President in their eyes.

Goldworthy says the final straw was when it became clear to the Gatundu group that without Mboya (Odinga was already out) they would not be able to keep anything in Nyanza (this despite the fact that they had already attacked and decimated all of Mboyas power bases).

They clearly thought that Mboya was a walkover and their demonstration of power would bring him in line. They were gravely mistaken. Mboyas attitude was one of indifference when it came to issues of Kanus political prowess in Nyanza. As such;
In May 1969 a by election was held in Gem constituency to elect a successor to Argwings Kodhek who had been killed in a car accident. Gem had been that rarity, a Kanu held seat in Central Nyanza. Mboya both as party Secretary-General and as the sole remaining Luo minister at the highest level was naturally expected to spearhead the Governments campaign on behalf of its Luo candidate. But this time he stayed right out of it, and it fell upon Mungai to lead Kanus campaign. Mboyas unspoken message seemed to be: let them see what they can do without me.

Kanus candidate was crushed. In the view of some, this incident was for the inner group the final straw: the factor which hardened them against Mboya once and for all.

In the final anaylsis. Mboya was murdered and he had seen it coming. But he was not prepared to compromise on his ideals.

Who had the motive to murder him?

Who had the capacity to do it?

Who had the ability to cover it up?

In mboyas trial, my understanding is that the prosecution failed to follow up on an allegation made by a senior Police officer to the effect that when they were interrogating Njenga he had said, why ask me, why not ask the big man? the prosecution failed to follow this in the trial. In addition I understand that the family lawyer, one Fritz De Souza was not allowed to cross examine the suspect? Why would this be so? Does it make sense? unless there was a deliberate attempt by the powers at the time to avoid that question.

Yours sincerely
Lucas Mboya

Posted by Karuga wa Njuguna

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Sudan allows accused coup plotters to see their families

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

Khartoum (Sudan) Sudan has granted family members permission to visit in prison relatives arrested last month for allegedly trying to overthrow the government.

The ministry of justice issued the permission on Tuesday.

The national intelligence and security services arrested former army officers as well as members of two leading opposition political parties, accusing them of trying to overthrow the government and create chaos in the country.

Last week, intelligence and security officials said that they have investigated 44 suspects involved in the foiled coup and handed 33 to the ministry of justice for further investigations.

Mubark Al Fadil of Umma Party for Renewal and Reform, accused of masterminding the coup, has been allowed to see his family on Wednesday.

Prosecutor general Salah Abu Zaid told APA in Khartoum on Tuesday that the accused have rights to see their lawyers as well.

The families who have met with their relatives accused of the coup plot said that all the accused are in good health.

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Sudan confirms 12,000 African troops ready for Darfur

Posted by African Press International on August 15, 2007

Khartoum (Sudan) Sudans representative to the United Nations Abdel Mahmoud Abdel Haleem confirmed on Monday that about 12,000 African troops are ready to participate in the African Union-United Nations hydrid force in Darfur.

Speaking to journalists in Khartoum, he said described the commitment of the African countries to participate in the hybrid force as an obligation by Africans to keep the nature of the force predominantly African.

According to the UN Security Council resolution 1769, African troops confirmed to participate in the operation were estimated at 13,000-14,000 troops.

African Union Commission chairman Alpha Oumar Konare told reporters late on Sunday after a meeting with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir in Khartoum that the AU will not allow the hydrid force to be under any other command.

The Security Council on July 31 authorized a peacekeeping force for Darfur made up of 20,000 peacekeepers and 6,000 civilian police.

The UN resolution on Darfur also made it clear that \”there will be unity of command and control,\” meaning a single chain of command and that \”command and control structures and backstopping will be provided by the United Nations\”.

President al-Bashir supported the decision of the AU Commission chairperson Konare after their meeting on Sunday.

\”We support the AU force, which consolidates the efforts of the Sudanese government to ensure security, peace and stability in Darfur,\” Al-Bashir told reporters.

Konare also said that an international summit on Darfur would be held in New York next month as a continuation of the Addis Ababa meeting last November 2006.

However, Konare stressed that the New York meeting will not be a continuation of the Paris conference.

He was referring to the conference hosted by France in June, which was boycotted by Sudan and the African Union.

Published by Korir, API*APN africanpress@chello.no tel +47 932 99 739 or +47 6300 2525 source.apa

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